We post here a collection of related
papers, reports, articles, and communications.
Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural
Pesticides: The CHARGE Study." A June 23, 2014,
paper in Environmental Health Perspectives published by
the UC Davis MIND Institute shows association between maternal
exposure to agricultural pesticides, specifically
organophosphates, and autism in offspring. The study
indicates that pregnant women who lived in close proximity to
fields and farms where organophosphates were applied experienced a
two-thirds increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum
disorder or other developmental delay. According to
principal investigator, researcher, professor, and Vice Chair of
the Department of Public Health Sciences at UC Davis, Irva
Hertz-Picciotto, we need to find ways to reduce exposures to
chemical pesticides, particularly for the very young and
especially during gestation.
Causing the West Nile Virus Outbreak." An
October 15, 2011, article in Mother Jones about the sudden
temporary flareup of cases around the country this year.
A September 14, 2012, post
from Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility indicating
that there is no evidence that "aerial spraying is an effective
safeguard" against WNv, "specialists who conduct aerial spraying
concede that it does not eliminate risk from mosquito-borne
diseases," Massachusetts Department of Public Health officials
have been unable to produce a single record supporting its claim
of a 60% reduction of the mosquito population in a July spray
event, "pesticides applied by aerial spraying endanger both public
health and the environment," and subsequent to the aerial spraying
programs the outbreaks in Massachusetts occur every year instead
of the typical once every 13 years.
Viruses from Animals to People." A September 7,
2012, interview with Professor Maria Duik-Wasser of the Yale
School of Public Health, who basically indicates that very little
is known about spraying since there have been very few studies due
to lack of funding, there are flareups from time to time (such as
in Texas this year), and spraying late in the season is pointless.
to minimize exposure to aerial and ground spraying of
pesticides." An August 24, 2012, article in
counties nationwide begin mass aerial sprayings of toxic
'anti-West Nile Virus' pesticides." An August
20, 2012, article on NaturalNews.com about spraying for WNv in
some communities because of the temporary flareup of the virus in
this very hot summer.
Aerial Spray Programs Endanger Human Health, Don’t Work."
An article we wrote for the California Progress Report, posted on
August 2, 2012, explaining that the spray is dangerous and does
not slow the transmission of WNv to humans. Moreover, the
serious human case count (neuroinvasive cases) for all of
Sacramento and Yolo counties for 2011 and 2012 is a grand total of
1. This is far below the "dozens, if not hundreds, of cases
of serious neuroinvasive disease that often result in permanent
disability and can conclude in death" that vector control and CDPH projected we
would have "without intervention" when WNv first became of concern
in the region in 2005. The evidence
is strong that the aerial spray has not provided "intervention,"
which calls into very serious question the staggering amount of
money being spent on an ineffective program. The human case
count is so low because the virus is naturally receding into what
is called chronic
endemicity. The low human case count then reduced
vector control's own "risk assessment," and that factor was then
removed from the so-called risk assessment. An epidemic can
now be declared, which
triggers aerial spraying, in absence of any human
to combat West Nile virus slated for Sunday and Monday nights."
A June 30, 2012, Sacramento Bee article indicating that spraying
over "vast areas of Sacramento and Elk Grove" will happen Sunday
and Monday nights because of a spike in West Nile virus
detections. This seems to be proof that the spraying three
weeks ago did not "break the
transmission cycle," which it could not, nor can this one. It is against
federal law for pesticide applicators to claim that a pesticide is
"safe," yet the SYMVCD spokesperson asserts that "the spraying
does not pose a human health risk." Your tax dollars at work.
Nile Spraying: Are Pesticides Leading To Toxic Exposures?"
A June 14, 2012, article in Huff Post Green asking exactly that
question, prompted by SYMVCD's recent use of an organophosphate
instead of the less toxic mix from previous years. Once
again officials claim that the dose is so low it can't hurt you,
but this is not necessarily true.
Most troubling, however, is the claim that the spray in 2005 was
"a strategy researchers later confirmed had lessened the burden of
West Nile in the community." This is patently false, as that
non-controlled-experiment has several
fatal flaws and no conclusions can be drawn from it
"Pesticides Being Proposed for
Aerial Spraying Over South Sacramento County Among the Most
Toxic." A June 11, 2012, press release from
Pesticide Watch and Organic Sacramento. Using a more toxic
pesticide for the same purpose as in recent years seems to be
tacit admission on the part of vector control officials that the
spraying did not work in previous years. This spray program
cannot work either, and instead of seeing very safe and effective measures
used the public loses once again with no effective control and
exposure to a more toxic pesticide.
“Mass. Residents Fight Aerial
Insecticide Spraying” Residents in Massachusetts are
also disturbed about the spraying this year, when activity is
down. The article notes alternatives to spraying and
possible harm to dragonflies and honeybees. They say the
spray “will have devastating, long-lasting effects on the natural
environment in general,” and “the damage caused . . . far
outweighs any purported benefits.” August 9, 2010.
Mosquito Repellant?” An August 26, 2009, New York
Times story about a breakthrough in repelling mosquitoes that was
discovered by a scientist in Riverside, tested on the Culex
mosquitoes, which spread WNv.
Essential Oil Eyed as Mosquito, Ant Repellent.”
Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists have teamed up with
researchers from a company in American Samoa to investigate the
chemical makeup of a mosquito- and ant-repellent essential oil
from a native Samoan plant. August 24, 2009.
“Safer Bug Spray: Natural Bug Repellents.” A look at more natural options to keep mosquitoes at bay this summer, from WebMD.
“Pyrethroids Contaminate Urban Creeks in California.” From Pesticide Action Network, March 5, 2009 – In January, California's Pesticide Registration and Evaluation Committee heard from Donald Weston, an ecologist at U.C. Berkeley. Weston presented research showing the presence of pyrethroid insecticides in the rain water run-off from several residential neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area and the Central Valley. Weston said that “While [pyrethroids] have been touted as less toxic to mammals than some of the acutely hazardous pesticides they've replaced, this research adds to evidence that pyrethroids may pose a variety of unanticipated risks.” PAN notes that studies have suggested that many pyrethroids are endocrine disruptors, and some are ranked by the EPA as probable human carcinogens.
“West Nile virus cases were overstated
in 2008 across U.S.” Chris Joyner, USA Today, January
22, 2009. Faulty testing kits led to an overstatement of WNv
cases in the country by more than 35% in 2008, reports the
CDC. “A false notion that cases are up also could lead
states to alter prevention plans,” noted a CDC spokeswoman.
“Early Puberty in Girls Troubling. The trend raises the risk of breast cancer, emotional problems.” Dorsey Griffith - Bee Medical Writer, Saturday, September 15, 2007. This is a report commissioned by the Breast Cancer Fund, which indicates that “American girls are entering puberty at earlier ages, putting them at far greater risk for breast cancer later in life and for all sorts of social and emotional problems well before they reach adulthood.” It is hailed as a “superb review of what we know,” a number of possible causes are listed, including environmental/chemical exposures, which include exposures to pesticides.
“Once Ominous, West Nile Wanes As Area Threat,” Washington Post, July 30, 2007. The disease has receded rapidly in the Washington region, and they do not spray adulticides there. “Five years ago, West Nile virus seemed like a major public health threat to the Washington region, with nearly 100 human cases and 11 deaths. But the disease has receded rapidly here since then, even as it remains a problem elsewhere in the United States. Health experts credit the region's relatively low toll since then to a well-coordinated response from local agencies that included raising public awareness about prevention and applying larvicide to storm drains and other target areas.” The virus is receding into chronic endemicity: “the virus seems to be stabilized . . . it is endemic in our area.”
“Pesticides And Schools: A 'Tragic' Health Hazard” An article from Science Daily, July 26, 2007. An entomologist and professor from Indiana University says that “Over 80 percent of schools in America are applying pesticides on a regular basis, whether they have a pest problem or not. This is tragic not only because of the well-documented link between pesticides and health problems in children, such as asthma and neurological disorders, but also because pesticides generally do not work in a preventive manner in the school environment. Applying pesticides does not prevent pests from coming in, so using them when pests are not present does nothing other than expose children and staff to toxic chemicals.”
“Premature Births May be Linked to Seasonal Levels of Pesticides and Nitrates in Surface Water” May 7, 2007, Paul Winchester, Indiana University School of Medicine. A four-year study suggesting that the growing premature birth rate in the United States appears to be strongly associated with increased use of pesticides and nitrates. “To recognize that what we put into our environment has potential pandemic effects on pregnancy outcome and possibly on child development is a momentous observation, which hopefully will help transform the way humanity cares for its world,” said James Lemons, M.D., Hugh McK. Landon Professor of Pediatrics at the IU School of Medicine.
Model of the Transmission of Dengue Fever with an Evaluation of
the Impact of Ultra-Low Volume (ULV) Insecticide Applications on
Dengue Epidemics,” Elizabeth A. C. Newton and Paul
Reiter, American Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 47(6), 1992, pp.
709-720. The authors “developed a deterministic susceptible,
exposed, infectious, resistant or removed (SEIR) model of dengue
fever transmission” that enabled them to “explore the behavior of
an epidemic, and to experiment with vector control
practices.” Dengue is different from WNv in several
respects, one of which is that the host is humans and not
birds. Also, studies typically assume a steady state, as
dengue has been around for years and is not seasonal. As a
result of their model and experiments the authors conclude that
“The model indicates that ULV has little impact on disease
incidence, even when multiple applications are made, although the
peak of the epidemic may be delayed. Decreasing the carrying
capacity of the environment for mosquitoes, and thus the basic
reproduction rate of the disease, by source reduction or other
means, is more effective in reducing transmission.” Delaying
the peak in a WNv outbreak in this area would mean a longer
“season” and more chance for exposure for people. Further,
as to the benefit of ULV treatments, the authors conclude: “Thus,
the benefit in medical terms appears low, and may be almost
worthless unless other factors, such as the need to reassure the
human population with high visibility action, are taken into
account.” This is yet another acknowledgement of the public
relations component of adulticide spraying. It is not clear
from the article if officials and the media sensationalized the
issue in the study region and increased the perception for a need
of high visibility action, but it is our view that public health
and vector control officials in this area are paid well to do the
right thing instead of fomenting fear among people and taking
ineffective but palliative actions after generating an irrational
fear of the extremely rare disease.
New York City settles no spray lawsuit, April 12, 2007. New York City admits that pesticides may remain in the environment beyond their intended purpose and may cause adverse health effects.
“Pyrethroid pesticides are health hazards,” No Spray Coalition. After having been told for seven years that pesticides used in repeated rounds of mass spraying around New York City were harmless, the No Spray Coalition has concluded that pyrethroids are not safe. Specifically, “they cause serious harm to human, animal and marine health.” Also, “These pesticides are often promoted as 'safer' than malathion, an unrelated organophosphate, but this is not true.”
“West Nile leaves officials scratching,” Georgia E. Frye, Meridian Star, August 27, 2006. Yet another locale in the country has stopped spraying for West Nile Virus in absence of evidence that it slows the transmission of the virus to humans: “Lauderdale County Engineer Neal Carson said the county stopped spraying in July of last year on the recommendation of the state Department of Health. He said a representative from the department said spraying did little to stop West Nile Virus and so county crews have been on hold since then.”
Press Release from the No-Spray
Coalition, August 20, 2006 Brooklyn, N.Y. Outlines current
spraying problems in Brooklyn and Staten Island and discusses
their current lawsuit based on the Clean Water Act.
on cities partially effective,” Carrie
Peyton Dahlberg, Sacramento Bee, Saturday, August 19, 2006.
This is a brief report of the supposed partial effectiveness of
the spraying of the urban areas of Davis and Woodland on August 8
and 9, 2006. But, yet once again a report is very
misleading. It focuses on mosquito counts, and there remains
no credible evidence that killing only some adult mosquitoes slows
the transmission of WNV to humans. It also talks about what
is observed in traps, and what happens in them is far different
than what happens in urban areas with uncaged mosquitoes.
According to David Pimentel, Ph.D., an entomologist at Cornell
University, close to 99.9 % of sprayed chemicals go off into the
environment where they can have detrimental effects on public
health and ecosystems, leaving 0.1% to actually hit the target
pest (see fact sheet).
The relevance of the current statistics, even just to killing
mosquitoes "in the wild," is thus very questionable. As we
have pointed out in a critique of a
recent presentation by the District Manager (see the notes at the
end), what is relevant is the level of the virus in the birds and
not the abundance of adult mosquitoes, as SYMVCD apparently
desperately wishes us to believe. Even if SYMVCD manages to
kill some adult mosquitoes "in the wild," it is a leap over a
giant logical chasm to conclude that the spraying was successful
in real terms -- slowing the transmission of WNV.
Furthermore, SYMVCD is not even sure which mosquito species is
(are) the vector (s). If it is Culex tarsalis alone,
these results are yet more questionable (since Culex tarsalis live
mainly in the agricultural areas outside of town and not in urban
areas), even if we are concerned solely with the simple task of
killing adult mosquitoes that vector the virus. Yet once
again, claims by officials that the spray was effective are based
on unscientific analysis, and the conclusions have not been
verified by independent analysis.
West Nile Virus - What the Media Won't Tell You. A holistic health site that discusses “West Nile Virus prevention and control without toxic drugs or pesticides.”
“West Nile Cases Drop as Immunities
Emerge, Experts Say,” Lynn Doan, Los Angeles
Times, August 19, 2006. "As humans and animals develop
immunity to the West Nile virus, the number of confirmed human
cases of the mosquito-borne disease has seen a dramatic decline in
California, a trend that is expected to continue, health experts
said." This is the decline to what is known as chronic
endemicity, which happens naturally, independent of spraying
this Protect Public Health or Is It a Grand Hoax?”
This is an op-ed in the Davis Enterprise on August 13, 2006.
We question the shoddy "evidence" that public-health and
vector-control officials have offered that spraying adulticides
slows the transmission of WNV to humans. Also, the district
manager claimed that we were not at the peak this year, we note
that actual data from this area from last year suggest that we are
in fact at the peak of infections, and we note that the district
manager thus tacitly admitted that there was no reason to
spray. Given that infected mosquito counts had gone to zero
on the weekend before the spraying and that overall counts had
dropped precipitously by 92%, we feel that abandonment of the
previously sacrosanct criterion of "5 infected mosquitoes per 1000
trapped" demonstrates that the decision to spray Davis was a
political one that had nothing to do with protecting the public
health. For additional reasons we oppose adulticide
spraying, see our addendum
to the op-ed. Also, you can read another Enterprise op-ed
from August 13, 2006, “West
More Risky than Aerial Assault,” and we post our response to
Opportunities Lost.” An entomologist with
considerable experience with mosquitoes in this area and Colombia
explains that there are extremely effective biological controls
available for mosquitoes, which
present no risk to either human health or the environment,
and it is a shame that the SYMVCD is not culturing them.
From the conclusion: "It seems almost ridiculous for the District
to consider multiple millions of dollars in expenditures on
insecticidal agents and not spend a dime on these safe and
effective biological agents. The risk-benefit comparisons should
be obvious. On the one hand we have a material with dubious
efficacy and a guaranteed universal exposure to an incompletely
assessed risk; and on the other we have a proven safe and
effective set of biological controls . . . The added labor
required to culture the District’s own biological alternatives
would end up both a benefit to community employment and
substantially less costly for the District’s budget than procuring
poisons and aircraft delivery systems. That the District is
choosing ongoing outlays for 100% depreciable investment in
distributing poison as opposed to investing in a permanent
facility for production of a renewable resource is beyond any
to 'Risk/Benefit' Analysis for Aerial Pesticide Release to Abate
the Vectors of West Nile Virus.” The entomologist from
the immediate item above responds to the "report" and claim that
the aerial spraying over Sacramento in the summer of 2005 was
effective and justified.
Davis City Council. This is a cover letter of the July
31, 2006, of a delivery of over 400 letters from citizens asking
the Council to support our resolution and request an opt-out of
the spraying from SYMVCD. We had gathered the letters in a
few weeks, and in the following few weeks we gathered many
more. When we stopped gathering the letters we had more than
1100. We never received the requested evidence of safety or
effectiveness, yet the Council refused to support these citizens
in their efforts to avoid being subjected to the spray. Here
is the form letter, and here is
effect,” Matt Weiser, Sacramento Bee, Saturday, July 29,
2006. "A chemical sprayed over Sacramento County last summer
to control West Nile virus doubled the toxicity of pesticides that
had already accumulated in local creeks from urban runoff, a new
study has found. . . . 'It wasn't a dramatic and catastrophic
event. But the fact that it's even close is remarkable, because
nobody had even considered the possibility of a relatively
nontoxic ingredient in a mosquito spray enhancing the toxicity of
something in the sediment.' . . . 'I think we're going to
re-evaluate our message,' Brown said. 'We had people washing it
off to such an extent they were creating a mosquito problem all
over again .' "
Low, So Far,” Friday, July 14, 2006, HealthDay News.
"The West Nile virus season is off to a slow start this year, U.S.
health officials say, but that doesn't portend a worry-free
summer. . . "
“Efficacy of Resmethrin Aerosols
Applied from the Road for Suppressing Culex Vectors of West
Nile Virus,” June 2006. A new
study failed to show that spraying reduces the transmission of
West Nile Virus. Beyond
Pesticides notes that "Recognizing the
widespread use of truck-mounted spraying to control adult
mosquitos, yet the lack of research on the true effectiveness
of this method in reducing the transmission of West Nile Virus
(WNv) disease, a group of scientists and practicioners
conducted an efficacy investigation of truck-mounted spraying
in reducing mosquito populations. . . . The authors conclude
'we find that ULV applications of resmethrin had little or no
impact on the Culex vectors of WNV, even at maximum permitted
rates of application, [and] such insecticidal aerosols,
delivered from the road, may not effectively reduce the force
of transmission of WNV.' " This is particularly noteworthy
for the SYMVCD spraying since aerial spraying is thought to
have less chance of being effective than ground spraying, and
resmethrin is a pyrethroid, which is more potent than the
pyrethrum used in the local aerial spray.
Making a Careful Choice.” An article indicating some
alternatives to DEET for a mosquito repellent because of
concerns about its health effects. A variety of plant-based
products have been developed to meet this need.
Occupational Causes of Cancer: A Review of Recent Scientific
Evidence,” (September 2005) summarizes scientific
evidence documenting associations between environmental and
occupational exposures and certain cancers in the United States. .
. . It is the first summary of this massive body of material
in one accessible document. The study shows that many cancer cases
and deaths are caused or contributed to by involuntary exposures.
These include: bladder cancer from the primary solvent used in dry
cleaning, breast cancer from endocrine disruptors like bisphenol-A
and other plastics components, lung cancer from residential
exposure to radon, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from solvent and
herbicide exposure, and childhood leukemia from pesticides. . . .
“The sum of the evidence makes an airtight case for
reconsideration of chemicals policies in the U.S.,” said Dr.
Richard W. Clapp, lead epidemiologist for the report and adjunct
professor at UMass Lowell.
Spray Critics Take Meeting From Officials in Davis, CA.”
An article from Beyond Pesticides, August 29, 2005, with a good
description of what actually happened at the City Forum on August
Platform. Platform of the Alliance for Informed
Mosquito Management. "In too many municipalities across the
country, there are inadequate mosquito management policies in
place. In some cases, a coherent management plan does not
even exist. As a result, there is often a heavy reliance on
mass spraying of pesticides to kill adult mosquitoes. This
method of mosquito management is widely considered by experts to
be the least effective and most risky response to this important
public health concern. There is no credible evidence that
spraying pesticides used to kill adult mosquitoes, also known as
adulticides, reduce or prevent WNV incidents or illnesses.
In fact, communities that do not generally use adulticides as part
of their mosquito control often have lower cases of WNV than their
neighbors that do. Pesticides used in the battle against
mosquitoes have been linked to numerous adverse health effects
including asthma and respiratory problems, dermatological
reactions, endocrine disruption, chemical sensitivities, and
cancer. Adulticides can also be harmful or fatal to
nontarget wildlife. There are much safer and more effective
ways to manage mosquitoes and protect the public from
mosquito-borne illnesses like WNV than the spraying of
“Common Industrial Chemicals in Tiny Doses Raise Health
Issue,” Peter Waldman, Wall Street Journal, July
25, 2005. "A growing body of animal research suggests to
some scientists that even minute traces of some chemicals, always
assumed to be biologically insignificant, can affect such
processes as gene activation and the brain development of
newborns. An especially striking finding: It appears that
some substances may have effects at the very lowest exposures that
are absent at higher levels."
Nile Risk Low.” A July 24, 2005, article from
the Missoulian, giving some important perspective on how dangerous
WNV really is.
change focus on West Nile.” An article from
the Roanoke Times, Roanoke, Virginia, of July 26, 2004, explaining
that as of that summer the West Nile Virus is "No longer an
unusual disease, West Nile can be treated as a common summer
occurrence." They are "reducing the amount of research
conducted on West Nile virus this summer in order to focus more on
community-based prevention," since so few people get the disease.
“An Open Letter by Concerned Physicians and Scientists. Stop the Indiscriminate 'Friendly Fire' Pesticide Spraying.” CAP-Open Letter, Updated 11/3/2003. "Massive chemical pesticide spraying against mosquitoes carrying West Nile Virus will have many serious detrimental consequences, especially on human health. The ramifications of such action will result in far reaching public health, financial, legal and other problems. Indiscriminate spraying of pesticides, especially in heavily populated urban areas, is far more dangerous to human health and the natural environment than a relatively small risk of West Nile Virus."
Pesticide Spraying for West Nile Virus in California May Cause
More Harm Than Good.” An August 2003 paper by
Matt Wilson of the Toxics Action Center, Will Sugg of The Maine
Environmental Policy Institute, and Jasmine Vasavada of Pesticide
Watch. The authors argue that more harm than good may be
caused because ground and aerial spraying have not proven
effective in curbing WNV, "Pesticide spraying will expose human
beings and non target organisms to chemicals known to affect human
health and the environment," and "California’s current West Nile
Virus Response Plan is overly permissive of dangerous and
ineffective pesticide spraying."
“West Nile Hysteria: The Snake Bite of 2002.” A spring 2003 article by Don Fitz, who draws the analogy of West Nile spraying with the snake-bite kits he was urged to use as a child. It turns out that the use of the kits was more deadly to kids than snake bites, and Fitz worries that this "cure," with synergized pyrethrins and pyrethroids, may be similarly worse than the disease.
“Ineffectiveness of Pesticides at Controlling Mosquito
Populations.” Excerpts from a talk with the
same title at the February 5, 2003, forum on "Pesticides in the
City of St. Louis." "What do advocates of pesticide spraying
say when confronted with the dangers of these chemicals? The pat
answer is: 'We do everything we can to reduce mosquitoes; but
there are always some left and you have to get them with sprays.'
Statements like this assume that pesticide sprays reach
mosquitoes. If virtually none of the spray makes it to mosquitoes,
the argument has no merit. This is, in fact, the case.
Spraying pesticides either has no long-term effect on mosquito
populations or results in an increase in their numbers."
“Useless Spraying? West Nile
Deterrent May Not Be Best Solution.” An
August 8, 2002, item on ABC News. "'The chemicals have not
been adequately tested for their human health effects,' cautioned
Dr. Sheldon Krimsky, a pesticide-risk expert at Tufts University.
'There is a lot of circumstantial evidence that they cause cancer
in animal studies, that they are hormone disruptors. Remember,
these are neurotoxins,' Krimsy said, adding that most studies done
on the effects of spraying focused on agricultural spraying — not
spraying in populated areas."
“Meeting The Challenge of West Nile Virus
Without Poisons.” A Winter 2002 article from the
Journal of Pesticide Reform. From the article: "Reduction of
mosquito problems around homes and neighborhoods can be
successfully achieved with just a few simple steps. Focus on
the reduction or elimination of mosquito breeding habitats, any
place or container that collects standing water. Individuals
and communities can have a large impact on reducing the risk of
West Nile infection without using pesticides."
“Out of Control.” An article in Audubon
Magazine, 2001. "The specter of West Nile virus has given
new urgency to the annual assault on mosquitoes. But what are the
real costs of this chemical warfare?"
“Pesticides Targeting West
Nile-Carrying Mosquitos May be a Thyroid Danger.”
An article about the spraying in Boston and New York in 2000 with
two pesticides based on synthetic pyrethrins, or
pyrethroids. "Researchers have found that pyrethroids are
environmental estrogens, and 'through these hormonal pathways,
exposure to certain pyrethroids may contribute to reproductive
dysfunction, developmental impairment, and cancer' . . . Another
study found that some pyrethroids have the potential to promote
breast cell proliferation, an action that can increase cancer risk
. . . The city has overstepped the boundaries of safety and law in
the handling of its mosquito prevention and management program,
exposing the public to hazardous pesticides. . . . There's a
grossly inadequate effort to track the collateral impact on the
environment and on humans." The Sacramento-Yolo Mosquito
Control District uses Suspend SC, which contains the pyrethroid